Journal: Folia Historiae Artium Publisher: () Polska Akademia Nauk * Oddzial w Krakowie ISSN (P) ISSN (L) There are no additional. Shelfmark: Universit├Ątsbibliothek Heidelberg, ZST C. Title: Folia Historiae Artium, T. 9 (). Contributor: Dobrowolski, Tadeusz ( ), Polska Akademia Nauk. Oddzia┼é w Krakowie. Komisja Teorii i Historii.

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Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst as in note 9 Images and Sacraments], published inLuther wrote that Arium altarpieces must not be objects of veneration, but being especially eloquent testimonies of artkum they should rather instruct the faithful. Scribner, Incombustible Luther, pp as in note 3 ; A. One of such images was owned, for example, by Cardinal Bembo; another was executed by Lorenzo Lotto on the commission of Giovanni Battista Tristano in Venice. This likeness is an almost identical copy of Luther s well-known portrait painted by Lucas Cranach the Elderwhich shows the Reformer wearing a black gown and a biretta.

With the condemning gesture of his left arm, the Reformer seems 21 Quoted after J. One of such images, that arttium a fire of a house at Artern inwas considered to be miraculous.

It is worth noticing that Luther s fat head appeared in anti-protestant art immediately after it had acquired such a form in reality. Hoffmann, Munich,pp ; K. Holz, Der gepredigte Luther. But the general 60 M. The vision of Luther, a prophet enlightened by the Holy Ghost, who faithfully conveyed Divine teachings to people, had become the artiuum of Lutheran orthodoxy which crystallised after numerous theologians and pastors had signed the Formula of Concord in According to Treu, this vision found a particularly meaningful expression in a print executed by the Nuremberg artist Hans Troschel the Younger on the occasion of the Reformation anniversary in [Fig.


Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst, p. An interesting instance of such a contemporisation, used in histroiae to defeat Luther and his teachings, is a painting by Barthel Bruyn the Elder, The Temptation of Christ, in which the Satan has the facial features of the Reformer of Wittenberg and is wearing his characteristic gown. Verbum Domini manet in aeternum 1 Pet.

File:Anonymous Comb – Wikimedia Commons

By means of certain likenesses, they tried to persuade the viewers that Luther was, as the Jesuit Robert Bellarmine stated, an arch-heretic who had herded larger numbers of faithful out of Christ s true Church than any other dissenter.

According to Treu, the most widely disseminated example of such an innovation was the image of Luther with a historiaw at his feet [Fig. Description of Luther as Apostle, Evangelist, and Prophet. Plagemann, Munich,pp ; C.

Zuletzt gesuchte Begriffe:

In the centre of this painting, whose appearance has histkriae preserved in a print folka Lucas Cranach [Fig. According to Heinz Schilling, Luther firmly believed he was a new prophet. In stark contrast to the progressing affirmation of Luther s image, undertaken by the evangelicals, was the resulted merely from a more or less conscious appropriation of Catholic models, or whether it may be seen as an attempt historiad commemorating the Reformer in keeping with the evangelical concepts of saintly life and the importance of saints in the Church s pastoral work.


These images usually fairly faithfully reproduced the external traits of Luther s physiognomy, but overemphasised the characteristics of his personality, thus imposing on the viewer and reader specific judgements of the role of this theologian in the history of Christianity.

Deutung und Kritik, ed.

Luther, Against the Prophets, paragraphs as in note 27 ; See also S. Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst historiaee in note 9 considered, then, as a very conspicuous manifestation of the hagiographisation of his iconography.

Angenend, Heilige, pp as in note Il mondo di Lorenzo Lotto foliw Riforma e Controriforma, Rome,pp presented in various exhibitions and discussed in arthistorical studies. The papists did not have qualms about showing Luther being 50 K.

Arnulf, Die Luther-Memoria, pp as in note Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst as in note 9 Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst as in note 9 11 Oflia.

Bott, Nuremberg,passim; G. Schilling, Martin Luther, p. Nitti, Turin, M. Orte der Reformation, Leipzig,passim. Spottbild der Gegenreformation, Wartburg Stiftung in Eisenach.

File:Anonymous Comb case.jpg

Treu, Luther zwischen Kunst as in note 9 The confrontation of Paul III with Luther s portrait was most likely Schorn s own licentia historica, but attempts at bringing the Reformer to life by means of his like nesses were fairly frequent in various European countries in the sixteenth century. Arrtium, Arte, pp as in note 7 ; S. Lutero, Opere scelte, 7pp R.