These test methods incorporated a Saybolt universal viscometer which determined . Further evaluation and comparison of experimental data can be carried. 32) Saybolt Viscosity Test – Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read CPB Petrochemicals & Petroleum Refining Technology Experiment 5: Oil . 1) Saybolt Viscometer and Bath (Universal and Furol Orifice) . Experiment No. 5: SAYBOLT VISCOMETER AIM: To determine viscosity of the given oil using Say Bolt Viscometer at different temperatures expressed in terms .
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Viscometer – Wikipedia
Also known as experimwnt Norcross viscometer after its inventor, Austin Norcross. In general, either the fluid remains stationary and an object moves through it, or the object is stationary and the fluid moves past it. The Alphabetical Comparison Method uses 4 sets of lettered reference tubes, A5 through Z10, experimetn known viscosity to cover a viscosity range from 0. Here, an oscillating quartz crystal is immersed into a fluid and the specific influence on the oscillating behavior defines the viscosity.
The higher the viscosity, the larger the damping imposed on the resonator. This can ssaybolt further improved by using a patented V plate which increases the number of rotations to distance traveled, allowing smaller more portable devices. The saybklt true viscosity will be the same as the cone and plate value at the same shear rate. The Saybolt viscometer has a vertical cylindrical chamber filled with liquid whose viscosity is to be measured Fig. The Direct Time Method uses a single 3-line times tube for determining the “bubble seconds”, which may then be converted to stokes.
Measurements are taken whereby a sample is first introduced into the thermally controlled measurement chamber where the piston resides.
The flow conditions must have a sufficiently small value of Reynolds number for there to be laminar flow. Journal of Lubricating Ivscometer.
Viscometers that can characterize non-Newtonian fluids are usually called rheometers or plastometers.
Saybolt Viscometer – Measure Viscosity of Crude Oil and Liquid Petroleum Products –
In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Measurement of the viscosity and shear elasticity of liquids by means of a torsionally vibrating crystal; Transactions of the ASME. We will call the shear stress form factor C 1 and the shear rate factor C 2. Instruments used in medical laboratories.
Such viscometers can be classified as direct flow or reverse flow. The time required for an air bubble to rise is directly proportional to the viscosity of the liquid, so the faster the bubble rises, the lower the viscosity.
Band 69,S. This also allows the viscometer to have more than 1 set of marks to allow for an immediate timing of the time it takes to reach the 3rd mark, therefore yielding 2 timings and allowing for subsequent calculation of Determinability to ensure accurate results.
A limiting factor on the validity of this result is the roughness of the sphere being used. C 1 takes the shear stress as that occurring at an average radius position r a. The time required for the test liquid to flow through a capillary of a known diameter of a certain factor between two marked points is measured.
Since we normally work with shear stress and shear rates, a method viscometrr needed to convert from “instrument numbers” to “rheology numbers”. With this system, the shear rate between the geometries is constant at any given rotational speed. The vibration amplitude varies according to the viscosity of the fluid in which the fiscometer is immersed.
The active part of the sensor is a vibrating rod. The resulting Lorentz interaction experimenh the magnetic field and these eddy currents generate torque that rotates the sphere. Geophone Hydrophone Microphone Seismometer.
The use of two timings in one viscometer in a single run is only possible if the sample being measured has Newtonian properties.
Archived copy as title. Vibrating viscometers have no moving parts, no weak parts and the sensitive part is very small. Acid solvent cabinet Biosafety cabinet Fire blanket Fire extinguisher Fume hood.
Knowing the terminal velocity, the size and density of the sphere, and the density of the liquid, Stokes’ law can be used to calculate the viscosity of the fluid. Breathalyzer Carbon dioxide sensor Carbon monoxide detector Catalytic bead sensor Chemical field-effect transistor Electrochemical gas sensor Electrolyte—insulator—semiconductor sensor Electronic nose Fluorescent chloride sensors Holographic sensor Hydrocarbon dew point analyzer Hydrogen sensor Hydrogen sulfide sensor Infrared point sensor Ion selective electrode Microwave chemistry sensor Nitrogen oxide sensor Nondispersive ex;eriment sensor Olfactometer Optode Oxygen sensor Pellistor pH glass electrode Potentiometric sensor Redox electrode Smoke detector Zinc oxide nanorod sensor.
For calculation purpose of kinematic viscosity vthe simplified expression is obtained as below.
Please enter your name. Number of Employees 11 to 25 People. The motion of the sphere is monitored by a video camera 5 located below the cell.
The main disadvantage of the capillary tube viscometer is the errors that arise due to the variation in the head loss and other parameters. Improvements in sensitivity from modern electronics, is stimulating a growth in oscillating piston viscometer popularity with academic laboratories exploring gas viscosity.
The tube is located in a temperature controlled chamber 1 and set such that the sphere is situated in the centre of the two magnets.
Inside the tube is an aluminium sphere 4. Even very basic saybopt acidic fluids can be measured by adding a protective coating such as enamelor by changing the material of the sensor to a material such as L stainless steel.
The apparent shear rate is directly related to the flow rate and the dimension of the slit. If correctly selected, it reaches terminal velocitywhich can be measured by the time it takes to pass two marks on the tube.
Another version is the Ubbelohde viscometerwhich consists of a U-shaped glass tube held vertically in a controlled temperature bath. Bode who facilitated the detailed analysis of the electrical and mechanical transmission behavior of the oscillating system.
A built-in density measurement based on the oscillating U-tube principle allows the determination of kinematic viscosity from the measured dynamic viscosity employing the relation.
The oscillating piston viscometer technology has been adapted for small sample viscosity and micro-sample viscosity testing in laboratory applications. The rotating fluid’s shear forces drive the rotor, while a magnet inside the rotor forms an eddy current brake with the surrounding copper housing.
An equilibrium rotor speed is established between driving and retarding forces, which is an unambiguous measure of the dynamic viscosity.